Patrick Spaven is an independent consultant in monitoring and evaluation and a visiting fellow at Manchester Business School. He has worked in over 40 countries. Spaven has a PhD from the University of Warwick.
Despite significant funding for financial inclusion efforts worldwide—an estimated US$34 billion was committed as of 2015—approximately 2 billion adults remain excluded from the formal financial system. How do funders of financial inclusion programs know if and how development programs are making a difference?