This study aims to map the market system for DFS in WAEMU, including key actors in supply and demand, rules (e.g., regulations for e-money, telecommunications, competition), and supporting functions (e.g., agent networks, information providers); identify systemic constraints or root causes that explain why the DFS market is currently not serving the needs of low-income populations; and identify opportunities for triggering systems-level change.
Côte d’Ivoire is the largest producer and exporter of cocoa beans and cashew nuts, and a top exporter of coffee and palm oil. Nevertheless, Ivorian smallholder farmers who contribute the most to the agricultural sector are largely neglected by formal financial institutions.
This Focus Note discusses the activities (and related risks) in which bank agents may engage, management and mitigation of agent-related risks, approaches to licensing and supervision of bank agent businesses, and possible corrective measures supervisors may take.
This Working Paper explores three approaches banks in Kenya have used to respond to mobile money. While nonbank mobile financial services can fundamentally reshape the financial sector in a developing market, as they have clearly done in Kenya, mobile services need not represent an existential threat to the traditional banking industry.
The growth in online lending and investment platforms presents an opportunity and a challenge for MFIs intent on tapping the potential of online lenders or investors. This paper focuses on the demand side of the equation and highlights issues that MFIs may want to consider before signing up for a loan from an online lending platform.