This study looks at Pakistan’s nearly decade-old experience with regulating digital financial services (referred in the local context as branchless banking) as a test case for the RIA Lite methodology,
This report introduces and develops the concept that a proportionate approach to any financial inclusion measure (and specifically to its regulatory and supervisory design and implementation) should seek to optimize the I-SIP linkages:maximizing synergies and minimizing tradeoffs and negative outcomes.
This Focus Note distills lessons from four microfinance markets: Nicaragua, Morocco, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Pakistan. These countries have all experienced a microfinance repayment crisis after a period of high growth and are important microfinance markets in their respective regions.
This paper draws from research conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Uganda to look at how providers identify, classify, and manage risks related to the use of agents and how supervisors assess providers.
Under the right circumstances, financial inclusion, stability, integrity, and consumer protection (collectively referred to as I-SIP) can be positively related, and the failure to consider any one of these objectives can lead to problems.
This Brief explains why approaches to inclusive finance that are currently widespread do not share the potentially destabilizing attributes of other types of shadow banking, concluding by identifying some risks worth monitoring as the picture continues to evolve.