Women and Financial Inclusion
Women and girls make up a little over half the world’s population, but their contribution to measured economic activity, growth, and well-being is far below its potential, resulting in significant socio-economic consequences. Globally, only half of women participate in the labor force, compared to three quarters of men. In developing countries, up to 95% of women’s employment is informal; in jobs that are unprotected by labor laws, or which do not benefit from social protection. Women and girls are also the face of poverty, the latest Progress of the World’s Women 2015-2016 by UN Women finds that women are more likely than men to live in the poorest households in 41 out of 75 countries.
Financial services are a core enabler for consumption smoothing, risk mitigation, self-employment, SME growth, asset accumulation, and wealth creation. Lack of access to financial services reduces women’s ability to climb out of poverty; increases their risk of falling into poverty; contributes to women’s marginalization to the informal sector; and reduces their ability to fully engage in measurable and productive economic activities.
Forty-two percent of women and girls worldwide – approximately 1.1 billion– remain outside the formal financial system, according to the Global Findex database. Despite recent progress in financial inclusion rates in general, the gender gap has not narrowed: While account penetration increased by 13 percentage points among men and women between 2011 and 2014, the gender gap remains a steady 7 percentage points. Among adults living in the poorest 40 percent of households in developing economies, the gender gap is 11 percentage points. The gap varies significant by region and is highest in South Asia.
While women represent a larger share of the self-employed in developing countries and thus are in greater need of access to formal financial services, they are less likely to secure bank credit according to research by the World Bank. According to Findex, women also are less likely to report having borrowed from family and friends in the past year. IFC research shows that because of poor credit history or lack of collateral, women are more likely to be denied formal credit than men and often pay higher interest rates.
Financial inclusion of women and girls can create gender equality by empowering them and giving them greater control over their financial lives. Savings accounts can provide women and girls with a safe and formal platform to save their earnings for future investments in business operations and build a credit history. Digital payments help women take control of their own finances and strengthen their control over household budgets. This, in turn, often results in higher spending on necessities such as health and education. CGAP prioritizes women’s financial inclusion throughout its work. More recently, CGAP is exploring how to further increase its engagement on the topic. CGAP’s existing work embeds research and experimentation that tries to enhance women’s access and usage of financial services. Some important links to our work that impacts women include:
Women and Digital Financial Services:
- Working with the Poorest Women in Pakistan (blog post)
- Literacy: a Hidden Hurdle to financial inclusion in Pakistan (blog post)
- Digital Finance in Bangladesh: Where are all the Women? (blog post)
- How hard is it to Use Mobile Money for a Rural Bangladeshi Woman? (blog post)
- Why Women Self-Help Group Members Make Good Agents (blog post)
Women's Voice, Agency, and Empowerment
- Field Interviews: Customers' Views on Customer Empowerment in Cote d'Ivoire
- Filipino Customers' Views on Empowerment
- Findings from India: Customer Views on Empowerment
- Synthesis Report: Customer Views on Empowerment
Reaching the Poorest Women: Graduation Program
- Researchers Highlight Graduation Research (news)
- From Extreme Poverty to Sustainable Livelihoods (publication)
Recommended Reading outside of CGAP
- UN Women: Progress of the World's Women 2015-2016
- Wall Street Journal: Gender Gap Persists for Bank Account Holders
- Women's World Banking: Global Best Practices in Banking Women-Led SMEs
- World Bank: Financial Inclusion and Legal Discrimination Against Women
- IMF: Women, Work and the Economy
- DFID: Promoting Women's Financial Inclusion, A Toolkit
Topic Contact: Yasmin Bin-Humam