Digital Financial Services

The high cost of building and operating brick-and-mortar bank branches has been a major obstacle for extending financial services to the poor. Physical bank branches are expensive to maintain in far-flung communities, while traveling to urban areas is costly for many rural customers.

However, unbanked individuals are increasingly gaining access to financial services through digital channels. Banks, microfinance institutions, mobile operators, and third party providers are leveraging mobile phones, point-of-sale devices, along with networks of small-scale agents, to offer basic financial services at greater convenience, scale and lower cost than traditional banking allows. There are an emerging new sets of institutions such as agent network managers, payment aggregators and others who are helping build out a more far reaching and efficient digital finance ecosystem.

According to estimates, more than 400 million people are linked globally through basic mobile payments services, allowing them to send money, pay bills, or purchase prepaid electricity with greater ease, affordability and access (GSMA Global Adoption Survey, 2015). Increasingly governments are adopting digital finance to deliver social safety net cash payments and trying to make collection of fees/tariffs more efficient.

Yet there remains a long way to go in digital finance. Ecosystems take time to develop and can take years before one-quarter to a half of adults begin to use basic payment services. There are also barriers that hinder the progression from payments to solutions “beyond payments.” For instance, many payments services remain relatively closed, making the integration of a broader range of solutions into existing payment platforms costly and cumbersome. In addition, many financial services such as savings and loans require significant physical touch points between customers and providers, making them difficult to scale.

Recognizing these barriers, CGAP is working to explore how industry can leverage the depth and reach of existing digital payments platforms, and develop a broad range of financial solutions that are relevant for the poor. In particular, CGAP focuses on the following areas: 

  • Open APIs seeks to support the development of open payments platforms that enable a broad range of providers to offer new solutions on top of the payment rails to the mass market.
  • Digital Delivery Models explores the impact of emerging technologies and innovations that can be delivered through remote, automated, fully digital delivery models to financially excluded customer segments.
  • Smartphone UI/UX explores how using an intuitive front-end interface can enhance the user experience, while effectively communicating relevant data and influencing customer behavior.
  • Data Analytics focuses on how financial service providers can operationalize digital data and advanced analytics in the provision of financial services to the mass market.
  • Digital Finance “Plus” explores how the digital processing of small-value payments can help extend critical services and utilities, such as clean water, health, energy, and education, to previously underserved communities.

 

Publications

11 October 2016
Innovations in digital finance can play a role in the Sustainable Development Goals' aim to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.”
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English (10 pages)
30 September 2016
This study aims to map the market system for DFS in WAEMU, including key actors in supply and demand, rules (e.g., regulations for e-money, telecommunications, competition), and supporting functions (e.g., agent networks, information providers); identify systemic constraints or root causes that explain why the DFS market is currently not serving the needs of low-income populations; and identify opportunities for triggering systems-level change.
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English (132 pages) | French (149 pages)

From Our Blog

Riding the digital rails
07 December 2016
What are "Open APIs" and why do they matter for financial inclusion? CGAP is looking at open APIs as an enabler of increased innovation in digital financial services. Here's what digital payments providers need to know.
digital credit word cloud
06 December 2016
In emerging markets around the world, policy-makers have often struggled to keep pace with the rapid growth of digital credit. With the establishment of consumer protection authorities unlikely in the short term, here are three steps policy-makers can take now to protect consumers.