Digital Financial Services

The high cost of building and operating brick-and-mortar bank branches has been a major obstacle for extending financial services to the poor. Physical bank branches are expensive to maintain in far-flung communities, while traveling to urban areas is costly for many rural customers.

However, unbanked individuals are increasingly gaining access to financial services through digital channels. Banks, microfinance institutions, mobile operators, and third party providers are leveraging mobile phones, point-of-sale devices, along with networks of small-scale agents, to offer basic financial services at greater convenience, scale and lower cost than traditional banking allows. There are an emerging new sets of institutions such as agent network managers, payment aggregators and others who are helping build out a more far reaching and efficient digital finance ecosystem.

According to estimates, more than 400 million people are linked globally through basic mobile payments services, allowing them to send money, pay bills, or purchase prepaid electricity with greater ease, affordability and access (GSMA Global Adoption Survey, 2015). Increasingly governments are adopting digital finance to deliver social safety net cash payments and trying to make collection of fees/tariffs more efficient.

Yet there remains a long way to go in digital finance. Ecosystems take time to develop and can take years before one-quarter to a half of adults begin to use basic payment services. There are also barriers that hinder the progression from payments to solutions “beyond payments.” For instance, many payments services remain relatively closed, making the integration of a broader range of solutions into existing payment platforms costly and cumbersome. In addition, many financial services such as savings and loans require significant physical touch points between customers and providers, making them difficult to scale.

Recognizing these barriers, CGAP is working to explore how industry can leverage the depth and reach of existing digital payments platforms, and develop a broad range of financial solutions that are relevant for the poor. In particular, CGAP focuses on the following areas: 

  • Open APIs seeks to support the development of open payments platforms that enable a broad range of providers to offer new solutions on top of the payment rails to the mass market.
  • Interoperabilty seeks to help low-income users transact more easily across digital financial services networks.
  • Digital Delivery Models explores the impact of emerging technologies and innovations that can be delivered through remote, automated, fully digital delivery models to financially excluded customer segments.
  • Smartphone UI/UX explores how using an intuitive front-end interface can enhance the user experience, while effectively communicating relevant data and influencing customer behavior.
  • Data Analytics focuses on how financial service providers can operationalize digital data and advanced analytics in the provision of financial services to the mass market.
  • Digital Finance “Plus” explores how the digital processing of small-value payments can help extend critical services and utilities, such as clean water, health, energy, and education, to previously underserved communities.
  • Digital Person-to-Government (P2G) Payments explores the financial inclusion potential of digitizing person-to-government payment flows.
  • Merchant Payments seeks to understand the pain points of merchants and consumers around retail transactions and to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for digital solutions to add value in retail payment ecosystems.

 

Publications

02 February 2017
This Brief takes a look at India's financial inclusion effort--the Prime Minister’s Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) program--two years since it launched in August 2014.
Countries: 
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English (4 pages)
20 December 2016
Interoperability—the ability for different systems to connect with one another—is attracting a lot of attention among digital finance experts. This Working Paper presents findings from a 20-country scan conducted in 2016 to assess the state of interoperability in select markets around the world.
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English (16 pages)

From Our Blog

Man on phone, India
22 March 2017
The unbundling of payments from banking is well underway in countries like India. Is the unbundling of payments from banking regulation soon to follow?
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Person uses mobile phone, Senegal
20 March 2017
Wari recently announced plans to acquire Tigo in Senegal, a move that would combine Senegal’s largest over-the-counter agent network with Tigo’s e-money wallet. This acquisition could disrupt the digital finance market in a way that benefits low-income customers.