Women and Financial Inclusion

Women and girls make up a little over half the world’s population, but their contribution to measured economic activity, growth, and well-being is far below its potential, resulting in significant socio-economic consequences. Globally, only half of women participate in the labor force, compared to three quarters of men. In developing countries, up to 95% of women’s employment is informal; in jobs that are unprotected by labor laws, or which do not benefit from social protection. Women and girls are also the face of poverty, the latest Progress of the World’s Women 2015-2016 by UN Women finds that women are more likely than men to live in the poorest households in 41 out of 75 countries.

Financial services are a core enabler for consumption smoothing, risk mitigation, self-employment, SME growth, asset accumulation, and wealth creation. Lack of access to financial services reduces women’s ability to climb out of poverty; increases their risk of falling into poverty; contributes to women’s marginalization to the informal sector; and reduces their ability to fully engage in measurable and productive economic activities.

Forty-two percent of women and girls worldwide – approximately 1.1 billion– remain outside the formal financial system, according to the Global Findex database. Despite recent progress in financial inclusion rates in general, the gender gap has not narrowed: While account penetration increased by 13 percentage points among men and women between 2011 and 2014, the gender gap remains a steady 7 percentage points. Among adults living in the poorest 40 percent of households in developing economies, the gender gap is 11 percentage points. The gap varies significant by region and is highest in South Asia.

While women represent a larger share of the self-employed in developing countries and thus are in greater need of access to formal financial services, they are less likely to secure bank credit according to research by the World Bank. According to Findex, women also are less likely to report having borrowed from family and friends in the past year. IFC research shows that because of poor credit history or lack of collateral, women are more likely to be denied formal credit than men and often pay higher interest rates.

Financial inclusion of women and girls can create gender equality by empowering them and giving them greater control over their financial lives. Savings accounts can provide women and girls with a safe and formal platform to save their earnings for future investments in business operations and build a credit history. Digital payments help women take control of their own finances and strengthen their control over household budgets. This, in turn, often results in higher spending on necessities such as health and education. CGAP prioritizes women’s financial inclusion throughout its work. More recently, CGAP is exploring how to further increase its engagement on the topic. CGAP’s existing work embeds research and experimentation that tries to enhance women’s access and usage of financial services. Some important links to our work that impacts women include:

Women and Digital Financial Services:

Women's Voice, Agency, and Empowerment

Reaching the Poorest Women: Graduation Program

Recommended Reading outside of CGAP

Topic Contact: Yasmin Bin-Humam

Publications

09 April 2018
This Brief explores the gender gap in financial inclusion among smallholder families in Tanzania and Mozambique through unique survey data that allow for a nationally representative look at smallholders.
Countries: 
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English (4 pages)
09 April 2018
New data show that 81 percent of women worldwide own a mobile phone. Although large gender gaps in mobile phone ownership persist in certain countries, mobile phones are more ubiquitous among women than are financial accounts.
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English (10 pages)

From Our Blog

Carpet weaver in India
28 February 2018
1 comment
Gallup data shows that 81 percent of women worldwide own a mobile phone. Yet regions with high ownership rates have some of the lowest rates of women's financial inclusion.
Spearfishing in Malaysia
03 August 2017
Changing gender norms doesn't mean empowering women at the expense of men. When women have a voice in financial decisions, it can benefit the entire household.