William Cook

Senior Financial Sector Specialist

Based in Nairobi, William Cook focuses on payments, financial market infrastructure, and digital business models. Before joining CGAP, William held a variety of roles in financial services, including six years with Ernst & Young LLP in the organization’s advisory and audit practices.

By William Cook


When is Interoperability Right for Microfinance?

When is interoperability right for microfinance institutions? We draw on interviews with 40 small financial institutions to unpack the complex picture around a universal approach to ensuring all institutions benefit from real-time, digital payments.

Is Financial Inclusion a Reason to Push Central Bank Digital Currencies?

Advocates of Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC) often cite financial inclusion as a reason to introduce them. CGAP examines their three main arguments: improved access to digital financial services, enhanced efficiency of payments and lower cost.

Comparing India’s UPI and Brazil’s New Instant Payment System, PIX

Many countries are pressing forward with new systems to enable better, faster digital payments. Brazil's instant payment system, PIX, is among the newest and most exciting. How does it compare to India's well-known UPI system?

Interoperability and Digital Finance: Emerging Guidance for Funders

This technical note helps funders to understand the concept of interoperability, how instant payments systems can advance financial inclusion, and what funders can do to support their development.

Building Faster Better: A Guide to Inclusive Instant Payment Systems

Interoperability can make digital payments more convenient for customers and encourage competition in financial services. This technical guide is a practical resource for policy makers, providers, and others working toward interoperability in instant payments.