Fish bazaar | Photo by Md. Mahabub Hossain Khan, 2016 CGAP Photo Contest Photo by Md. Mahabub Hossain Khan, 2016 CGAP Photo Contest

Business and Markets

Banks going digital. Tech giants integrating payments into their platforms. Off-grid solar companies offering mobile education loans. Every year, the digital economy is spurring new business models and attracting a wider range of players to the financial services industry, including non-traditional actors like fintechs and social networks. This diversity of providers and business models has enormous potential to advance financial inclusion and contribute toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). CGAP’s research sheds light on promising business models that leverage digital technologies to design and deliver financial solutions for low-income customers. Our work also demonstrates how increased connectivity, facilitated by tools such as interoperable payments schemes and open APIs, can make it easier for innovators to offer useful, affordable financial solutions. 

By developing business models that leverage digital technology and by building the right connectivity through strategic partnerships, financial services providers can sustainably reach more low-income consumers with useful financial solutions.  

Latest Research


Building Blocks of a Modern G2P Architecture

G2P systems seldom fulfill their potential because they underutilize the capabilities of digital payments systems. As a result, recipients are prevented from exercising choice over the account or withdrawal points that are used. This results in a poor experience for beneficiaries, reduces the...

Reading Deck

Agent Networks at the Last Mile​: Implications for Financial Regulators

Rural agent networks are critical to “last mile” financial inclusion. This reading deck for regulators does three things: (i) it shows how expanding rural Cash-in/Cash-out (CICO) agent networks is key to ensuring more inclusive digital financial systems; (ii) it illustrates industry innovations that...

Reading Deck

Agent Networks ​at the Last Mile: Implications for Financial​ Service Providers

Rural agent networks are critical to “last mile” financial inclusion. This reading deck for Financial Services Providers (FSPs) shows: (i) how rural Cash-in/Cash-Out (CICO) agent network expansion leads to increased customer value and sustained market growth; (ii) the barriers FSPs face to expand...

Latest Blogs


BNPL in Nigeria: Emerging Fintech Innovations for MSEs

Findings from our recent research suggest BNPL is becoming a significant lending mechanism for Nigerians – especially for micro, small and medium enterprises and self-employed individuals who would not otherwise have access to credit.

Financial Inclusion-Friendly G2P: Recommendations for Stakeholders

G2P transfer experiments during the COVID-19 pandemic collectively demonstrate the importance of “financial inclusion (FI)-friendly” G2P - intentional architecting and implementation that support active DFS usage beyond an initial payment.

Kickstarting CICO Rural Agent Network Innovation: 5 Tips for Funders

Based on pilots in five countries (Colombia, Cote d’Ivoire, India, Indonesia, Morocco and Pakistan), we share early insights on how funders can engage with stakeholders in Cash-in Cash-out (CICO) rural agent networks to kickstart innovation.