Research & Analysis

Agent Network Journeys Toward the Last Mile: A Cross-Country Perspective

Agent networks are a critical interface between poor customers and digital financial services providers, and enable cash-in and cash-out (CICO) transactions. Given that a majority of the world’s financially excluded and underserved customers live in rural areas, extending rural CICO agent networks is critical to further financial inclusion.  CGAP and its partners did deep dives into five financial markets that have significantly expanded their rural agent networks despite very different contexts: China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, and Kenya. This Focus Note reveals three distinct journeys country stakeholders have taken to extend the reach and quality of rural agent networks.

Related Resources

FinDev Gateway

Detailed country case studies on the agent network journey for China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, and Kenya.


CGAP and its partners conducted deep dive studies in five leading financial markets and presented findings from Kenya, Colombia, India, Indonesia and China.

Most digital financial services users require agents to help them switch between worlds of cash and digital currency. Global evidence suggests six principles for building viable agent networks in rural areas home to poor, financially excluded populations.