Publication

Nonbank E-Money Issuers vs. Payments Banks: How Do They Compare?

A special licensing category for nonbank e-money issuers is considered a key regulatory enabler for inclusive digital financial services. This Technical Note compares the EMI license with the payments bank license that India, Mexico and Nigeria have created.
Publication

A Guide to Supervising E-Money Issuers

This paper provides general guidance to supervisors in emerging markets and developing economies who are designing proportional approaches to EMI supervision, and serves as a reference for drafting or improving EMI supervision manuals in a few specific areas.
Publication

Data Collection by Supervisors of Digital Financial Services

Digital financial services (DFS) have grown considerably in emerging markets and developing economies, where they are instrumental for financial inclusion. DFS supervision needs to ensure that this expansion happens in a way that facilitates sustained, healthy financial inclusion.
Publication

Supervision of Banks and Nonbanks Operating through Agents

This paper draws from research conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Uganda to look at how providers identify, classify, and manage risks related to the use of agents and how supervisors assess providers.
Publication

Implementing Consumer Protection

This Guide highlights key areas of opportunity for bank supervisors to improve consumer protection.
Publication

Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance

This Donor Brief provides a simple and clear summary of the increasingly complex issues in microfinance regulation and supervision. It includes definitions of key terms, clear guidelines, and options for donor action.
Publication

Regulation and Supervision of Microfinance Institutions

There is a huge unmet demand for financial services in the microenterprise sector. Despite some success stories, MFIs probably reach fewer than 5 percent of the potential clients.