Publication

Nonbank E-Money Issuers vs. Payments Banks: How Do They Compare?

A special licensing category for nonbank e-money issuers is considered a key regulatory enabler for inclusive digital financial services. This Technical Note compares the EMI license with the payments bank license that India, Mexico and Nigeria have created.
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Fair Play: Ensuring Competition in Digital Financial Services

In addition to the behavior of market actors, regulation can have a substantial impact on the dynamics of competition in digital financial services markets. CGAP examines some regulatory levers that policy makers can deploy to promote more competition in emerging economies.
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Deposit Insurance Treatment of E-Money: An Analysis of Policy Choices

The expansion of digital financial accounts among poor customers has raised the question of whether e-money should be covered by deposit insurance and if so, how. This Technical Note examines the options while arguing that deposit insurance should not be the first line of defense in many emerging markets.
Publication

Risk-Based Customer Due Diligence: Regulatory Approaches

Regulators face a challenge in balancing policies on anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism against their financial inclusion goals. This Technical Note provides guidance on using risk-based approaches to customer due diligence, with examples from around the world.
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Beyond KYC Utilities: Collaborative Customer Due Diligence

CGAP has developed a typology to help policy makers and financial service providers evaluate the financial inclusion potential of a new range of collaborative approaches to customer due diligence to combat money laundering and terror financing.
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Safeguarding Rules for Customer Funds Held by EMIs

This Technical Note looks in detail at safeguards such as maintaining customer funds in bank accounts and diversifying funds across several banks to reduce the concentration risk. It also discusses the option – offered in some countries – of placing funds in other safe, liquid assets.
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Applying the RIA Lite Methodology: An Example from Pakistan

This study looks at Pakistan’s nearly decade-old experience with regulating digital financial services (referred in the local context as branchless banking) as a test case for the RIA Lite methodology,
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Regulatory Sandboxes and Financial Inclusion

Regulatory sandboxes may enable financial innovations that benefit excluded and underserved customers. In most cases, a regulatory sandbox is a framework set up by a financial sector regulator to allow small-scale, live testing of innovations by private firms in a controlled environment under the regulator’s supervision.
Publication

Mobile Payments Infrastructure Access and Its Regulation

This research shows USSD access is an important competition issue in many countries since there are no effective substitutes that have been proven at scale.