Reading Deck

Agent Networks at the Last Mile​: Implications for Financial Regulators

Rural agent networks are critical to “last mile” financial inclusion. This reading deck for regulators does three things: (i) it shows how expanding rural Cash-in/Cash-out (CICO) agent networks is key to ensuring more inclusive digital financial systems; (ii) it illustrates industry innovations that are making rural CICO more viable; and (iii) it presents a set of regulatory considerations that can enable such innovations within a stable financial system. 

Reading Deck

Agent Networks​ at the Last Mile​: Implications for Policy Makers

Rural agent networks are critical to “last mile” financial inclusion. This reading deck for policy makers does two things: (i) it shows how rural Cash-in/Cash-out (CICO) agent network expansion is key to ensuring poor people can capture the benefits of digital financial ecosystems; and (ii) it presents a set of policies that have been effective in enabling rural CICO in a way that benefits vulnerable segments, like rural women, and that reinforces the effectiveness of social programs targeting these segments. 

Reading Deck

Agent Networks ​at the Last Mile: Implications for Financial​ Service Providers

Rural agent networks are critical to “last mile” financial inclusion. This reading deck for Financial Services Providers (FSPs) shows: (i) how rural Cash-in/Cash-Out (CICO) agent network expansion leads to increased customer value and sustained market growth; (ii) the barriers FSPs face to expand rural CICO networks; and (iii) successful new practices carried out in different markets that address barriers and result in improved rural CICO reach and quality. 

Publication

Developing Rural Agent Networks: Emerging Guidance for Funders

Funders are uniquely positioned to help expand rural Cash-in / Cash-out (CICO) agent networks by leveraging their financial resources, technical knowledge and convening power to align the incentives and build capacity of market actors, so that they design and implement self-sustaining solutions.
Publication

Fintech and Financial Inclusion: A Funders' Guide to Greater Impact

This practical guide, based on two years of global research, describes how development funders can identify promising fintechs and maximize the impact of their support.
Publication

Agent Network Journeys Toward the Last Mile: A Cross-Country Perspective

CGAP's analysis reveals three distinct journeys country stakeholders have taken to extend the reach and quality of rural agent networks.
Publication

Inclusive Digital Banking: Emerging Markets Case Studies

What makes digital banking inclusive? CGAP looks at how three digital banks are innovating and driving financial inclusion: Tyme Bank in South Africa, Kotak 811 in India, and UnionBank of the Philippines.
Publication

The Use of Agents by Digital Financial Services Providers

Agents play a crucial role in lowering the cost of delivery to reach the unbanked and underbanked population. An increasing number of countries, especially emerging markets and developing economies, allow a diverse array of banks and nonbank institutions to distribute digital financial services through agents.
Publication

Agent Networks at the Last Mile

Most digital financial services users require agents to help them switch between worlds of cash and digital currency. Global evidence suggests six principles for building viable agent networks in rural areas home to poor, financially excluded populations.
Publication

Fintechs and Financial Inclusion

Based on pilots with 18 fintechs across Africa and South Asia, this paper identifies emerging fintech innovations with potential to improve the lives of the poor. It also highlights common challenges faced by early-stage fintechs.